Pakistani Brain Malware

First virus for the IBM PC Platform and to be created using Stealth Mechanism for the first time. Paksitani Brain infected the boot sector of floppy disk, spreading globally in devices in a matter of weeks.


Internet of Things (IoT): Geo Fencing.

Geo-fencing is a tactic made possible by the emergence of smart phones and mobile devices, uses the applications of GPS (Global Positioning System) or RFID (Radio Frequency Identification). These certainly works with Satellites.

In Accurate definition:

Geo-fencing, or geofencing, is a term that refers to software tools or applications that utilize GPS or RFID to establish a virtual perimeter or barrier around a physical geographical area.

Internet of Things, which deals with API (Application Programming Interface) has used GeoFencing, can be enhanced in few of the applications such as,

Philips Hue Connected Bulbs

> Philips used GeoFencing, so that you can control your light bulb with your smartphone.

The Buckingham Palace

The Buckingham Palace is the official London residence dirge British monarch since 1837. Located in the City of Westminster, London, the building also serves as the administrative headquarters of the monarch. The building is 108 meters long across the front, 24 meters high, and it has 775 rooms.

The centerpiece of Britain’s constitutional monarchy, the Buckingham Palace was originally known as the Buckingham House. The building which forms the core of today’s palace was a large townhouse built in 1705 for the Duke of Buckingham, John Sheffield.

In 1761 George III bought Buckingham House for his wife Queen Charlotte. Subsequently, Buckingham House became known as the wife Queen Charlotte. George IV, on his accession in 1820, decided to reconstruct the house, and by the end of 1826, with the assistance of his architect, George IV set about transforming the house into a palace.

The first sovereign to reside at the Buckingham Palace was Queen Victoria who moved into newly completed palace in July 1837, just three weeks after her accession. In July 1838 she became the first British sovereign to leave from the Buckingham Palace for a coronation.

One of England’s most spectacular places, the Buckingham Palace is furnished and decorated with priceless works of art that form part of the Royal Collection, one of the major art collection in the world today. Today, palace houses the offices of those who support the day-to-day activities and duties of the Queen and The Duke of the Edinburgh and their immediate family.

Did you know: the Queen has three official residence

1. Buckingham Palace

2. the oldest, Windsor Castle

3. the most romantic, Palace of Holyroodhouse.

Technology in Invisibility

‘Invisibility’ Closer to Reality

The journal, New Journal of Physics reports that researches have developed a thin material to help make things “invisible”. According to University of Texas in Austin researchers, if any object is wrapped in the material called “mantle cloak”, it ddisappears but the effect only applies to a limited range of light waves – specifically microwaves. In their experiment, microwave detectors could no longer “see” it, although it was still visible to the human eye. Similarly, the researchers are sure that they can make objects invisible to the human eye.
The effect of the material only covers a very small band of electromagnetic waves at one time, and in the visible range of light, it will only work on objects much thinner than a single strand of hair.
In fact, the new cloak is made by combing copper tape with polycarbonate, a material commonly used in DVD’s and CD’s

Charles Darwin

Charles Darwin

The Theory of Evolution


Charles Darwin was born on February 12, 1809, at Shrewsbury in England, to Robert Darwin and Susannah Wedgwood. Charles was the fifth child in a family of six children.

Robert was a physician, and so was his father, Erasmus Darwin. Erasmus, Charles’ paternal grandfather, had been a biologist too. He had presented a theory of evolution, and like him, many years later, so did his grandson. Charles’ maternal grandfather, Josiah Wedgwood, a porcelain manufacturer, also had interest in science, especially in chemistry. Both grandfathers were core members of scientific society known as the Lunar Society.

Charles’ mother died when he was a little over eight years old. The same year he was sent to a day school in Shrewsbury. He stayed a year in this school. Charles wasn’t a bright kid, and according to him, “I was much slower than my younger sister, Catherine.”

But even at that tender age he was interested in natural science (biology). One of his schoolmates remembers the young Darwin bringing a flower to school and saying that his mother had taught him that by looking at the inside of the blossom, the name of the plant could be detected.

After a year at the day school he was sent to a boarding school in Shrewsbury itself. Even though his home was only about a mile from the school, Darwin lived in the school. Very often he would run home when classes were over and would rush back to the school before the gates were locked for the night. He had the best of both worlds: He could live with his schoolmates without breaking away from home.

Darwin remained in this school till he was sixteen. But the school didn’t help his mental development much. He was rated as a below average student by the teachers. His father sharing this view, admonished him, “ You care for nothing but shooting, dogs, rat-catching, and you will be a disgrace to yourself and your family.”

But Charles had a zeal for whatever interested him. He was taught geometry by a private tutor. He liked reading Shakespeare and would sit with a book for hours. He liked other poets too, notably Byron and Scott.

What his father said to him was quite true but because he had become addicted to shooting. “I do not think that anyone could have shown more zeal for the most holy cause than I did for shooting birds,” he recollected later on.

He had also developed the interesting hobby of collecting minerals, insects and birds. He liked watching birds, and wondered why everyone didn’t become an ornithologist.

His brother, who was interested in science, had set up a laboratory in the tool house in their garden and Charles was allowed to help him. This was at the end of his school years. Assisting his brother and reading books on chemistry, he got interested in it. The laboratory at the Darwin home was soon known at school, and Charles was nicknamed ‘Gas’! When Charles’ headmaster came to know if it he rebuked him publicly for wasting his time on such useless subjects as chemistry!

Dr. Robert Darwin was not satisfied with his son’s progress in school, so he sent him to Edinburgh University with his brother Erasmus, who was at the university completing his medical course. Charles was also sent there to study medicine.

Charles spent two years at Edinburgh; but he didn’t put any hard effort into the study of medicine; for, as he himself recorded later on, he knew that his father would have him enough ‘property to live comfortably’. He found the lectures boring except those on chemistry by Prof. Hope. “Dr. Munro’s lectures were like himself and the subject disgusted me”, he said in his autobiography. “Dr. Duncan’s lectures on the Materia Medica at 8 o’clock on a winter’s morning are something fearful to remember”.

But he regretted later on that dissection compulsory. “I was not urged to practice dissection, otherwise I should have soon got over my disgust; and the practice would have been invaluable for all my future work.” But he didn’t have enough mental strength to attend the operations of his day. It was long before the days of chloroform and it took a nerve to perform surgery or even to watch it.

During this time Darwin collected quite a number of friends who shared his interest in biology. Some of them became distinguished persons later in life. His friends Ainsworth became a geologist and wrote a travelogue on Assyria. Grant became a professor at London’s University College. Coldstream was a serious student of zoology, and later on wrote many excellent articles on the subject.

Both Grant and Coldstream were interested in marine life. Darwin often accompanied Grant on his explorations of tidal pools to collect sea creatures. Darwin dissected them. He became friends with some fishermen. They took him along with them when they went to gather oysters and this Darwin was able to collect many specimens. This enabled him to read paper before the Plinian Society but he was not very successful, for he was not good at dissection, not did he have a good microscope.

At this time he was a member of several bodies interested in science. One of them was Plinian Society. Darwin used to attend the meetings regularly and read his paper. He was also a member of the Royal Medical Society and the Royal Society of Edinburgh, where he once saw Sir Walter Scott presiding over a meeting.

His father noted that Charles was not taking his medical studies seriously. So he proposed to his son that he become a clergyman. In those days few vocations were open to a young man from a good family. One of those was that of a priest. Charles didn’t subscribe to all the dogmas of the Church of England but the position of a country clergyman appealed to him. He accepted his father’s proposal.

In later life he was labelled an atheist and attacked for his theory of evolution. “Considering how fiercely I have been attacked by the orthodox, it seems ludicrous that I once intended to be a clergyman,” he recalls in his autobiography.

To take up the vocation of a clergyman, it was essential that he should take a degree in theology from one the English Universities. So he proceeded to Cambridge seem to have been only of secondary importance to Darwin. He had more zeal in collecting beetles. “I will give a proof of my zeal,” he writes. “One day on tearing off some old bark I saw two rare beetles, and seized one in each hand; then I saw a third and a new kind which I could not best to lose, so I popped the one which I held in my right hand into my mouth. Alas! It ejected some intensely acrid fluid which burnt my tongue, so that I was forced to spit the beetle out, which was lost, as was the third one.”

He used to collect insects in various ways. He employed a man in winter to scrape the moss off the old trees and keep it in a large bag. He collected the rubbish from the bottom of the barges. In this way he was able to collected some very rare species of insects. When he saw the words Captured by C. Darwin, Esq.”, in the book Illustration of British Insects,” his delight was beyond measures. “No poet has ever felt more delighted at seeing his first poem published,” he later recorded. Seeing his interest in insects, he was introduced to the science of entomology by his second cousin, W. Darwin Pox.

It was during this time that he met Professor Henslow who would influence his whole career. The professor was a highly learned man with vast knowledge of botany, entomology, chemistry, mineralogy and geology. Together they used to take long walks. A gathering of university men interested in science and students used to take place at the professor’s house once a week.

Prof. Henslow was impressed with the enthusiasm and ability of young Darwin. So, hearing of an opportunity for a naturalist to sail under Captain Robert FitzRoy on the ship HMS Beagle, he recommended the young man.

Forgetting all about becoming a clergyman, Darwin joined the ship as its naturalist, and the ship set sail on December 27, 1831. The accommodation was congested. He had to share the captain’s cabin. The captain was not of the cheerful dirt and there was hardly enough room to keep his equipment. Darwin slept in a hammock that swung mercilessly with every movement of the ship. I’m addition to all these, he suffered from sea-sickness throughout the voyage. The ship was on a five-year exploration to map the coast of Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego. Chile and Peru and to fix longitude, etc. It was customary to take a naturalist along on voyages of this kind so that the survey could include the flora and fauna of the region’s explored.

Darwin had taken four books with him:

  1. The Bible
  2. A copy of Milton’s poems
  3. An explorer account of Venezuela and the Orinoco Basin
  4. The first volume of Lyell’s Principles of Geology.

On arrival at Montevideo on the South American coast he found the second volume waiting for him, sent by Henslow. Volume three awaited him at Valparaiso, on the other side of the continent.

Darwin, throughout the voyage, kept up continuous flow of reports to Henslow, and those papers were read by the professor at the meetings of the Philosophical Society of Cambridge.

On the high seas, the voyage may have been a nightmare, but the opportunities it provides Darwin for biological studies were invaluable. His theory of evolution, and the famous work The Origin of Species, he owed to the knowledge he gathered during the voyage.

South America, especially, fascinated him with its vast variety of animals and plants. He saw giant tortoises in the Galapagos Islands. He was orchids in the Indian Ocean, and innumerable other interesting things. He made detailed notes and drawings and sent hundreds of specimens to Henslow in England.

He saw 13 different species of finches (later given the name ‘Darwin’s Finches‘) living on different isles of the Galapagos. The species were of the same color and size but had developed different shaped beaks. Darwin noticed that the feed available for the birds in those 13 island varied, and the shape of the beak also differed accordingly. He concluded that the species had developed different habitats. About those finches, he recorded in his autobiography that they differed slightly on each island of the group, and such differences could be explained, ‘on the supposition that species gradually become modified.’

The voyage ended in 1836, five years after the ship had set sail, and Darwin landed in England. His discovery, that species evolve from adapting to differing environs, troubled him because he couldn’t yet conclusively say that it was indeed so. He had a great deal of evidence, and yet doubt plagued him. So he began to write down in a notebook all the evidence he could think of, which supported his insight that life-forms get transmuted with adaption to environment.

Then, 1838, he happened to read the Population Theory of Malthus, the famous economist. According to the Malthusian theory, with time, the human population increases geometrically and not arithmetically. What it means is that increase is by multiplication (2, 4, 8, 16…) and not by addition (like 1,2,3,4…..). But the means that support is population increase only arithmetically, that is so say, the production of food, etc., does not keep up with population increases, but lags far behind. So, nature steps into reduce the population and, natural forces such as disease, war, poverty, overcrowding and vice, take over to weed out those that are less fit. Those that are the fittest survive; those that pass the rest of natural selection.

In his notebook, Darwin had used the words descent and modification to describe the process by which distinct characteristic of species evolve. Now, from Malthus he got a new and very apt term: selection.

Darwin developed the idea of natural selection in species, a concept that is often referred to as ‘survival of the fittest’. Thus the fittest survive and reproduce and pass on the traits that enabled them to survive to later generations.

To make his research thorough and well-documented, Darwin started a study of fossils and living forms of barnacles (a small sea creature with a shell). He examined 10,000 specimens and between 1851 and 1854 published four papers in his research. This exhausting, tedious and meticulous work took eight years.

During the period of this work, he came upon the idea of divergence. By divergence is meant the development of differences between varieties of the same species to the extent that they become separate species. According to him this divergence was due to better adaption by the varieties and the branching off took them farther and farther from the original stock.

Now some of his friends, who were fellow scientists and his brother Erasmus, wanted him to present his theory in a fully documented book form. So Darwin began writing and published his famous work Origin of Species on November 24, 1856. This first edition had only 1250 copies, all of which were sold on the same day the books was released.

Most of the scientists of the day accepted Darwin’s ideas, but the general public was slow to accept them. Many people considered the idea to be atheistic–a denial of the role of God in the creation of the world. They labelled the transmutation theory as the ‘rank materialism’.

What troubled most people was the contention that the species evolved from another, since it raises the possibility that the human beings may have descended from a non-human ancestor, though Darwin had avoided stating so in his book.

Reaction that the book was, mostly, hostile. Ape-like cartoons of Darwin appeared in newspapers, and there were articles and sermons against him. Darwin’s daughter had only recently died. The sorrow coupled with his ill-health and the attacks made his condition worse.

In 1871 Darwin published The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, in which he supported the idea that humans had descended from pre-human creatures.

Resistance to his ideas continued for some more time, till it petered off by the end the end of the 19th century.

Charles Darwin died of a heart attack at his home on April 19, 1882. His country honored him by burying him Westminster Abbey.

Darwin changed man’s conception of himself and his place in nature. In this way, he is among those very few great scientists who bring about revolution in human thought. But Darwin, unassuming, humble, innocent, hardly thought so.

“During the voyage of the Beagle I had been deeply impressed by discovering…..great fossils animals covered with armour like that on the existing armadillos; secondly, by the manner in which closely allied animals replace one another in proceeding southwards over the continent…. It was evident that such facts as these, as well as supposition that species gradually became modified; and the subject haunted me.”

Charles Darwin, on how he started his work on “The Origin of Species“.



C.V. Raman

C.V. Raman

The Scientist who was a poet at heart



Chandrasekhar Venkat Raman was born in Thiruvinaikal, a small village near Thiruchirapally in Tamil Nadu, on November 7, 1888. The couple Chandrasekhara and Parvathi Ammal Iyer had eight children of whom, Raman was the second.

When Raman was born, his father was local school teacher. When Raman was four, his father left Vishakapatnam (Vizag) as lecturer in Physics and mathematics. He had a large collection of books on interest in science and used to read the books on these subjects. Young Raman also developed in reading was so great that he conducted experiments with improvised apparatus at home, and in school.

He completed high school at the age of eleven, won a scholarship and joined the Presidency College in Madras. There is an amusing anecdote about his first year at college. Raman, hardly 12, was mistaken by a professor for a small boy loitering in the college. He noticed a very young boy, lean and dark, wearing cap, shirt and coat, a dhoti draped around his waist, his feet bare, standing at the door of his class. The professor, surprised, asked young Raman, whether he had lost his way. The whole class laughed.

But soon the professors as well as his fellow students had to change their image of Raman. His knowledge of science was far advanced compared to what was prescribed in the syllabus. Raman was exempted from attending lectures. This enabled him to spend time in the college library and laboratory.

One day he was examining the angle of a prism using the spectrometer in the college laboratory. He observed some diffraction bands. Raman investigated them and wrote a paper on the subject which he sent to the Philosophical Magazine of London. The journal published it. This was the first of his studies to be published and was Raman was only 16. Then he sent a second article to the journal describing a new method of measuring surface tension, which also was published. While at college, he corresponded with England’s eminent scientist, Lord Raleigh, and spent much time at the college library studying Raleigh’s research papers. He also cycled twice a week to the Connemara Library, many miles away, to read the latest scientific journals.

After he passed his B.A examination his teachers advised him to go to England for further studies. But the Civil Surgeon of Madras refused him the certificate for medical fitness saying that his health wasn’t good enough to withstand the climate in England. He then joined the France Department as a Civil Servant passing the examination with top marks. He was posted at Calcutta.

About this time he married Lokasundari. More than her beauty, her skill on the veena attracted him. Raman met her as she was playing on the veena the famous composition of Thyagaraja which means “who is equal to you, Raman?” This bowled him over, even though the girl meant God, and not C.V Raman!

The job in the France Ministry did not, however, affect his interest in science. He was already a member of the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science. They had a laboratory in Calcutta where Raman spent many hours after office, working late into the night, sometimes the whole night, doing research.

In 1917, Raman left the Civil Service and joined the University College, Calcutta, as Professor of Physics. In doing so he was leaving a high-salaried job to take up one with five times less pay. It was a foolish thing in the eyes of the world but he found an occupation which was dear to his heart and which offered opportunities for study and research.

In 1921, the Calcutta University sent him to England as its representative to attend the Congress of Universities of the British Empire at Oxford. It gave him an opportunity to meet many eminent men of science. He gave a lecture at the Physical Society of London on his latest researches in optics and acoustics with experimental demonstrations. His researches impressed the large number of physicist assembled there.

During his return journey by ship, the blueness of the sky and the sea intrigued him. Why were the sky and the sea so blue? Beauty always fascinated him. He said in later life that he was, in reality, a poet who had strayed into the field of science. His researches, certainly, were on subjects that would usually fascinate a poet.

Sitting on the deck of the ship, Raman meditated long on the questions of why the ocean looked blue. Lord Raleigh had explained that the blue of the sky was due to the scattering of sunlight by the molecules that make up the atmosphere. Raman wanted to study the scattering of light in water. And thus began his research in optics that was to make him famous.

After his arrival back to Calcutta, he wrote his paper on “The Molecular Scattering of Light in Water and the Color of the Sea” within a month.

By 1924 Raman’s research had won him worldwide recognition. The Royal Society of London made him a “Fellow of the Royal Society” (FRS). Six years later he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics.

In 1933 Raman was offered the Directorship of the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore. So, he left Calcutta where he had been living for 25 years and moved to Bangalore. He was the first Indian Director of the institute. He made many welcome changes. Incidentally, it was C.V Raman who planted those beautiful flowering trees we are today in the institute campus.

In 1943, he founded his own institute, the Raman Research Institute, in Bangalore, on 11 acres of land gifted by the Maharaja of Mysore. He continued to work here till his death on November 20, 1970.

In his later years, all things beautiful, whether gem, flower or butterfly- anything that was colorful-fascinated him. He studied the origin color in beetles and butterflies and showed that a regular periodic structure in their wings produced the beautiful colors due to the diffraction of light.

Raman formed good living habits which maintained his health in good condition until few months before his death in 1970. He bequeathed all his personal wealth to the Raman Institute. He was opposed to research institutions receiving grants from the government because he feared this would affect the independence and freedom essential to carry out fundamental research.





Father of Science (384-322).

Most of us have at some time or other, read about the great scientists who made civilization what it is now. Some familiar names may be Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Darwin, Mendel and others down to Einstein. But there is one name that should stand out in the history of Science and it is that of Aristotle, the pioneer among scientist.

It is said that Socrates gave philosophy to humankind and Aristotlegave it science. Aristotle founded several branches of science. So he is rightly called the ‘Father of Science’. He founded the studies of Logic, Physics, Biology, Psychology, Aesthetics, Ethics, Politics and Metaphysics, and laid the foundation of Library Science by writing a treatise on the classification of books. These are in addition to his studies on Astronomy and Philosophy.

Aristotle was born in 384 B.C. at Stagira, a city in the kingdom of Macedonia, Greece, nearly twenty-two centuries ago. He was a pupil of Plato, and Plato was a pupil of the great Socrates. Aristotle himself had a very famous pupil-Alexander the great. Besides Aristotle father was friend and physician of Amyntas, king of Macedonia and grandfather of Alexander.

There are two narratives about the younger days of Aristotle. One, that he was reckless youth spending all his money, and then joining the army to avoid starvation. Finally the story says he returned to his home town and practiced medicine till the age of thirty.

The second narrative says that he went to Athens at the age of eighteen to join Plato’s school which was called the ‘Academy’. It also hints that his life was somewhat riotous. His studies and findings suggest that he spent a long time under Plato’s tutelage. So the story that he joined the Academy at eighteen must be nearer to the truth than the other one.

Plato recognized the greatness of his pupil and he once spoke of him as ‘Intelligence Personified’. But they didn’t really get along well with each other: two geniuses seldom do!

He married when he was forty, the sister of one of his students. A year after his marriage, Philip, the king of Macedonia, invited him to undertake the education of his son, Alexander. Philip was the most powerful ruler of his time, and it shows how highly Aristotle was regarded as a scholar.

When Aristotle met Alexander, the latter was a wild boy of thirteen. The prince’s favorite hobby was taming horses which were as wild as himself. Bucephalus, the horse on which Alexander rode forth to conquer the world, was tamed by him and it got very attached to him in the end.

Alexander’s father, king Philip, was conquering countries around Macedonia. He wanted to unify Greece and so conquered Athens, the most important city in the state of Greece. It is said Alexander lamented that his father wouldn’t leave him any countries to conquer.

To what extent could Aristotle mould Alexander’s character? Alexander loved and cherished his teacher as if he were his own father. However, despite his best efforts, Aristotle was unable to turn his royal pupil into a scholar. It is said that Alexander had better success with Bucephalus than Aristotle had with Alexander! But his close association with a great teacher like Aristotle must have influenced Alexander. He derived a passion for order to an order-less world that he went about conquering it.

Anyway, the period of tutelage wasn’t long. Philip was killed by an assassin, and Alexander ascended the throne. Soon after, he went riding around the world on a conquering spree.

After a short period of travel, Aristotle returned to Athens in the year 334 B.C. and after two or three years, established his famous school, the Lyceum. The Lyceum was not mere copy of Plato’s Academy was devoted to Mathematics and Philosophy, whereas Aristotle himself had studied; the Academy Aristotle’s Lyceum favored biology and other natural sciences.

The help and assistance this school received from Alexander was great indeed. Alexander gave Aristotle the sum of 800 talents, a huge amount, for equipment and research. Besides, he instructed all the hunters, gamekeepers, gardeners and fishermen in his empire to furnish Aristotle with all zoological and botanical specimens and material that he might require. It is reported that at one time Aristotle had a thousand men from Alexander’s vast empire at his disposal for collecting specimens of fauna and flora (animals and plants) of every land. At his suggestion, Alexander even sent a costly expedition to explore the sources of the Nile and discover the causes of its occasional floods. Alexander’s assistance to Aristotle is the first instance in the world history of large scale financing of science by the government. And it is doubtful whether any other state has ever supported scientific research on such a lavish scale.

People do not like those who invade their country and rule over them. The Athenians despised the Macedonians who had invaded their country and now ruled them. Aristotle was a Macedonian and hence he was not liked by the Athenians despite his learning. Athens had long been the centre of culture, and therefore the people regarded the Macedonians as barbarians. Also, Aristotle supported Alexander openly which did not help his standing with his Athenians.

This situation made both Aristotle and his school in Athens insecure. He had to work in a hostile environment, though under royal patronage. It could not have not been a quiet pursuit after knowledge, and finally, Aristotle came to a tragic end in Athens.

The Athenians, hungering for liberty, focused on Aristotle. Their anger reached its zenith when Alexander had a statue of Aristotle put up in the heart of Athens. This made Athens boil with hostility. Here we meet with fighter in Aristotle. With the city in turmoil, he went calmly about his great work, encircled by enemies in every side.

When suddenly, Alexander died, Athens went wild with joy and the Macedonians were driven out in no time. Athenian independence was declared.

 Aristotle was convicted of impiety. He was himself fated to be tried by juries and crowds hostile to him and wisely left the city. There was no cowardice in this as Athens always gave an accused person the option of leaving the city

He went to the city of Chalcis and there, fell ill and died. It is said that his death wasn’t due to natural causes, but that, lonely and disappointed, he committed suicide by drinking poison.

Thus ended the life of the founder of organised science and one of the greatest philosophers of all time.


Claude Bernard

Claude Bernard,

The Experiment Method in Medicine.

         Claude Bernard was a scientist who introduced the experimental method into the sciences of physiology and medicine. In doing so, he helped in making these studies exact sciences like physics or chemistry.

        He was born on July 12, 1813, at St. Julien, a village in the Rhone Valley of France. The family were vine growers for generations.

        He was educated at church schools till he turned eighteen when his parents could no longer afford his education. But he had to be trained for a profession and the parents placed him with a pharmacist as an apprentice. The pharmacist’s shop was in a small town near the city of Lyons. In those days the small-town pharmacist had the aura of a doctor, so his shop served as clinic as well. Claude’s parents might have hoped that the training would be a foothold to his becoming a physician.

      But Claude didn’t learn much about medicines there. His duties included sweeping the shop and pavements, rinsing and washing bottles and running errands. He was also sometimes allowed to prepare pills and powders, the pharmacists watching to make sure that nothing was wasted.

     The apprentice boys were not allowed much free time, but perhaps as an exception, Claude was permitted to go to Lyons one night in a month. As an errand boy, he regularly visited a veterinary school nearby, to deliver drugs for sick animals. This institution was the first of its kind in Europe, and the work of the doctors there impressed young Claude.

      Lyons had fashionable shops, cafés, neat avenues, sidewalks and paths where people could stroll. But for Claude, most attractive of all, were two theaters. One theater showed musical comedies and the other, the romantic dramas of the period. Spending his free night in a theater became a habit with Claude. He was so taken up with dramas that he wrote and staged a play himself.

      The play was a success and this encouraged him to write more plays. The pharmacist noticed this and wrote to his father requesting him to take Claude back as the boy had lost interest in pharmacy. Claude himself wrote home that he was unable to make up his mind which career to choose. At nineteen, he was back home.

     Claude spent nearly two years at home in St. Julien and set out for Paris in November 1834 seeking prospects as a dramatist. A kind lady had provided him with a letter of introduction to the librarian of Louis Phillipe, the king of France. He had also with him a certificate of good character from his old pharmacist, and a historical drama script which he had written during the months spent at home.

        Arriving in Paris, Claude met the royal librarian, who sent him to M. Saint-Marc Girardine,  Professor of French poetry at the famous Sorbonne University. The professor read his drama, but his verdict was that Bernard lacked the temperature of a dramatist. The professor was a kind man. In order to soften the blow he talked at length with Bernard and found out that he had been training to be pharmacist. He advised him to take up the medical profession as it would help him to make a living and thereby enable him to devote his free time to writing dramas or whatever interested him. Bernard took the advice and joined the medical school.

         He worked as a part-time teacher in a girls’ school to support himself and pay his fees at the medical school. His mother helped him as best as she could; baskets of fruits and provision used to be sent to him from his home in the village. This saved him from the bitter poverty endured by many of his fellow students.

           The first two years he did his pre-clinical studies at the end of which ‘externship’ started. Externship which covered two years was spent between the dissection room and hospitals.

           It was during this time that he met Francois Magendie, the great scientist who established physiology as an experimental science in France. This meeting changed the direction of his life.

         Prof. Magendie had already made important discoveries on the spinal of lectures at the college of France. It was a long series of lectures which started in December 1838 and ended in June 1839. The lectures interested Bernard greatly and he left that his skill in dissection would be very valuable in experimental physiology.

          Bernard completed his externship and commenced the internship in December 1839. In the second year of internship he came under Prof. Magendie. The scientist noticed that skill with which the young intern under him prepared anatomical specimens. “You are a better man than i am,” he remarked publicly.

            Claude Bernard took his medical degree when he was twenty-nine. In the summer of the following year he married Marie Francoise Martin, daughter of a Paris physician.

              Soon after, he started his research on the pancreas and its secretion. His findings were published in his Memoir of the Pancreas in 1856. His research was about the role of pancreatic secretion in the digestion of fats, starches and proteins. He corroborated the work of Valentin, another scientist, that pancreatic secretion is the fluid most active in turning starch into sugar.

                His work on the pancreas was immediately recognized in Paris. It brought him a prize from the Academy of Sciences. He had already been elected to the Philomathic Society of which most of the distinguished scientists of Paris were members. He was also among the Younger scientist who founded the Society of Biology in 1848. The Legion of Honour, France’s recognition of merit was awarded to him in 1849.

             In those days, Lavoisier’s theory that an animal body by itself cannot process nutrients like starch and sugar was accepted as true by scientist it meant that one’s diet held as true was that the presence of sugar in the blood was found only in diabetes patients and not in a normal healthy body.

             Bernard disproved both these theories. He found from experiments that the body can process starch and sugar and the presence of sugar was normal in the blood of a healthy body.

               His research led him to the conclusion that the most likely source of sugar in the blood would be one of the glandular organs of the abdomen. From further experiments he showed the liver as the source or storage point of sugar in the organism.

             In 1854, he was elected to the Academy of Sciences. The same year he was appointed to the newly created Chair of General Physiology at the Sorbonne University.

              Prof. Magendie died on October 7, 1855, and as the professor himself had desired, Claude Bernard succeeded him to the Chair of Medicine.

                He had already presented his papers on the liver and the pancreas. He now wanted to work in carbon monoxide and other toxic substances. He showed that carbon replaces the oxygen of the blood and makes the normal exchange between blood and tissues impossible. The result in asphyxiation (blocking of breath) causing death.

                  In 1857, Bernard succeeded in isolating glycogen from the liver tissues and preparing it in pure form. His career reached its apex when the presented his book, introduction of the Study of Experimental Medicine, along with 7 volumes of his lectures to the Academy of Sciences on August 21, 1865.

              But all was not well with Bernard’s family life. Madame Bernard was not an intellectual who shared her husband’s zeal for science and research. To her he seemed to be living in a separate world of his own. It was a world she couldn’t share with him and she felt that she was deprived of life. On his part also, probably there was neither time nor inclination, to share her world of Parisian social life. Gradually she developed a feeling of hostility towards her husbands. This hostility took the form of attacking him for cruelty to animals-she meant the experiments he conducted on animals. At times the reproaches developed into a warfare. Finally, they began to live apart and a decree of separation was granted to them in April 1870.

                 Claude Bernard passed away in February 1878, He was given a state funeral by the Government of France in recognition of his contributions to science.

Thomas Alva Edison

Thomas Alva Edison,
The Man who Immortalized Music.

Can you imagine a world without electricity?
One where music could not be recorded and kept, to listen to whenever one desire?
A world where there are no motion pictures? It was into such a that Thomas Alva Edison was born on 11 February, 1847. He, through his inventions, gave us a new world of music, light and motion pictures.

Edison was one of the greatest inventors of all time. He has to his credit more than a thousand inventions. At the tender age of four he began his experiments.

One day his mother was all dressed Nd ready to go to church. She wanted to take her little son along with her, but he was nowhere to be seen. “Al, are you ready for church? Al, where are you?” She called out as she went about searching for him. She searched every room in the house, and went out into the yard looking for him. Then she went in to the farm buildings.
She found the little four-year old boy in the barn, sitting cautiously on a layer of eggs.
“What are you doing, Al,” asked the astonished mother, “sitting there in those eggs?”
“I am trying to hatch them, Mum,” said little Al seriously.
“Oh, Al! You are a delight!” Said the amused mother, laughing.

His mother, Nancy Edison, loved him dearly. Three of her children had died, and her little Al was frail, too. So she took good care of him. She gave him good food and kept him healthy. She also loved to teach him and made learning fun for him.
When he was seven, the family moved to Port Huron in the state of Michigan. The town was surrounded by forests and woods. So his father, Samuel Edison started a timber business.

He was sent to a school in Fort Huron. In this school everything was taught by rote. Pupils were not allowed to ask questions. Al wanted to really understand his lessons, and he couldn’t memorize them mechanically. The poor boy was caned mercilessly for this. His mother was furious. She took Al out of the school and decided to teach him herself at home.

She was a good teacher. Moreover, she believed that her son would learn well and would grow up in to a fine, intelligent, capable person. Much later, when he grew up, he said, “Mother was always kind and sympathetic and never seemed to misjudged me. If it had not been for her faith in me, very likely, I would never have been an inventor.”

Soon, Al developed a love for reading which was encouraged by his parents. One of his happy memories is the day he turned nine. He remembers how he woke up to the ‘Happy Birthday’ song, sung by his parents, brothers and sisters standing by his beside. His mother held out a packet to him–his birthday present. When opened the packet he was delighted to find  a science book called Parker’s Natural and Experimental Philosophy.

What he likes best as gifts were books, though he never accepted everything said in a book. This was specially true of science books and whenever possible, he tested with experiments what the book stated. He had a mind which always enquired and questioned.

The family was in financial difficulty. His father could never make much money. Al’s father always wanted to do great things for his family but did not have sufficient income. Al loved him for his dreams regarding the family and vowed that one day he would help him realize those dreams. A time did come when he became very rich through his many inventions.

Al started working at the age of twelve. In those days, to be working at such a young age was not at all unusual in America. But the amount of work he did everyday was certainly unusual for a boy of twelve. He sold newspapers, fruit and candy to train passengers. It was tiresome work, walking up and down through the entire lengthy of  the train for three hours, calling out, “Newspaper, candy…. paper, candy”, continuously. He gave all his earnings to his parents, who were deeply touched. They increased his pocket money so that he could buy the chemicals he wanted to conduct experiments.

Young Edison converted the baggage compartment of his train in to a laboratory and carried out his experiments while at work. Half this compartment had been partitioned to make a smoking room. But people did not use it because it had no windows, Al found it always empty. So he converted it into his laboratory and spent his time there, experimenting with chemicals. One day, while he was doing experiments, a piece of phosphorus caught fire and smoke came drifting out of the baggage compartment. The train was halted at a station. People panicked when they saw the smoke. It was a struggle to put out the fire. The angry conductor threw out the boy and his equipment. He was hit on his ear.

An accident at about this time started his deafness which Edison has for the rest of the life. One day, while Edison was trying to climb into a freight car, both arms full of newspapers, the conductor took him by his ears to lift him into the car. Edison felt something snap on his head, and that was the beginning of his deafness. He always said he did not mind being deaf. It kept him from being bothered by outside noises and he could concentrate fully in his work.

Edison and Graham Bell were two scientists who were deeply interested in sound. Of them, Edison succeeded in recording sound, and Graham Bell in transmitting it across vast distances. Deafness was a cause of sorrow in the lives of both these great men. While Edison himself was nearly deaf, the two persons whom Graham Bell loved most — his mother and wife were both deaf.

Though he had become deaf, Edison did not lose heart. He became interested in telegraphy and a stationmaster, James Mackenzie, taught him its technology. Edison studied every book he was able to get on the subject.

As a result, he got a job a Telegraphist. It was his first job. Edison was only sixteen at the time. The job was with the Grand Trunk Railroad; his duty was to keep the night staff awake by sending telegraph signal every hour. It meant staying awake the whole night and Edison, who wanted to sleep, decided to something about it. He connected the telegraph machine to the clock and the device gave the signal every hour automatically. Thus, Edison could sleep freely! This was his first invention.

Now, his mind was fully occupied with ideas. When ideas take shape they become inventions, and Edison won his first patent in 1868. A patent makes you the rightful owner of your invention. The invention that got him his first patent was a ‘Voting Recorder’ by which votes could be easily counted.

A year later he was asked to invent a new Telegraphic machine which would enable stockbrokers know the latest gold price, speedily. When he presented the machine, he was paid a cheque of 40,000 dollars! This was first of the large sums he was to receive for his inventions. He used part of this money to set up a large laboratory in Menlo park, New Jersey. Here he spent the next few years trying to improve the telegraph.

At about this time Mary Stillwell
Joined the Edison laboratories as a capable and valuable assistant. Edison proposed marriage to her in quite a novel fashion.

One day, in the midst of a new experiment, he stopped and looked at her, “Mary….,” he called.
“Well, what is it, Al?” Asked Mary.
Edison took out a coin from his pocket and tapped out a message in a telegraphic code on the edge of his desk:
Mary blushed. Then she tapped out the answer:

Edison married Mary Stillwell in 1871 at the age of twenty four. At this time he was working on the telegraph and so, nicknamed his two children Dot and Dash, signs which form the telegraphic code. But he was so fully given to his researches that he had no time for his family.

Edison accidentally came upon the idea of his most famous invention, that of recording sound. It came like a flash of lightening while was working at a telegraphic machine. When he made a sound, the needle used in the machine pricked his finger. Edison was excited. This opened a whole new line of thought: perhaps sound could be recorded as drawings and these drawings could be used to reproduce the sound! This idea was revealed in the invention of the phonograph which made him world famous. Louis Pasteur invited Edison to his institute; Alexander Eiffel invited him for lunch at the top of his tower, the famous ‘Eiffel Tower’, in Paris.

Success did not stop his work. He worked night and day, ignoring Mary’s protests. Sometimes he slept on his work-table in the laboratory. He wanted to convert electricity in to light finally after a stretch of continuous experiments turning nights into days he invented the electric bulb.

On September 4, 1882 thousands of people gathered in a dark night, in New York to watch the new marvel. At a signal a switch was pull, and lo! Thousands of lamps in hundreds of homes, burst in to brilliance. That night, humankind entered in the world of light.

Edison mind was still not a rest. He was never-ending search. He wanted to invent a machine that would record a movement just as the photograph recorded sound. He invented Kinetograph which could take forty-six photographs of a moving object continuously, in one second. Before this, a camera could be used to take only a single photograph. The Kinetograph was the first step towards the movie camera.

Edison wanted to help young scientists to do research. So he built a huge, well equipped laboratory; he employed young scientists in the lab, where they could do research freely. This was the forerunner of the modern research department of universities.

Edison passed away on        October 18, 1931, after a life full of achievements and honours. He was a living example of what he once said: “The man who doesn’t make up his mind to cultivate the habit of thinking, missed one of the greatest pleasures in life.”